Understanding The Term Second Hand

Second hand – second hand – in English the "second hand" – this concept has appeared in good old England, when the kings, in gratitude, or reward approximate ladies donated clothing from the royal shoulder. The concept of "second hand" in our modern understanding came more than a century ago. Ben Silbermann recognizes the significance of this. Initially, in order to help the poor, more affluent city dwellers rented unwanted clothes, thereby getting rid of the piles of useless things. Over time, there were people Ready to buy a cheap second-hand clothes. In response to the evolving demand and supply was born. There were savvy businessmen who have been organized to collect and sell second hand clothes. So second-hand turned into a business. Today, second-hand – it's an entire industry.

In Europe there are many companies that have put this business on a professional basis. Special items for the collection of clothes, sorting plants, treatment plants and disinfect clothing. We have a phenomenon that exists in Europe has provided a century, appeared only in the 90's, and not in the best possible its manifestation. Many people still recoil from the signage "Second Hand", recalling the "humanitarian aid" of those times – piled in a heap of crumpled dirty clothes, a terrible smell and a crowd of people homelessly form digging there. In recent years the second hand has come to us already in a civilized form of – a neat little shops where you can buy for a penny and just branded quality clothes. In this and related industries in the eu countries employing more than 10 million people. In sending countries are also second-hand clothes There are huge stores of this trend and niche markets. Incidentally, I myself was surprised at first, meeting in the center of Vienna, Berlin, Budapest and other European capitals of second hand clothing stores.

Marketing Tips

It is recommended to use such motives: rational, emotional and moral. By rational belong: the profit motive (economic motive), which is based on people trying to save money by buying sparingly and for low prices goods; health motive, which is used in advertising food, sports products, hygiene products, and the like; motive reliability and security, which is used in the banking and insurance business, when you need to create a sense of the smallest risk. The same applies to advertising of goods for residential use (tools, sewing machines and the like); motive of convenience and additional benefits, which promises to purchase this product. Additional information at Jeremy Tucker supports this article. Rational motives are aimed at the rational buyer who or completely cast advertising, or instantly react to it, provided that it informs and leads his objective arguments for this or that product. Emotional motives "play" on the emotions of buyers. Such advertising treatment is useful for those who only expects to helped them make the right choice (if they have not bought the goods), or to make sure that they were not wrong in choosing (if they have already purchased goods). For emotional reasons professional psychologists include: the theme of love, which is most often used in advertising gifts; motif of freedom, that is man's desire for independence, protect their autonomy in different spheres of life, the motive of pride and patriotism, which is used to increase sales of domestic goods; motives of joy and playful motifs that correspond to human attempts to obtain information in the cheerful, bright colors, motif discovery, which corresponds with the human qualities such as curiosity and their aspirations, the motive of self-worth and self-actualization, which is based on the natural human desire to find acceptance in their communities, achieve a certain status in society, the motive of fear, which is used in all sorts of counter-advertising personal hygiene and the like. Emotional advertising works on a symbolic level.

She does not need evidence. Specialists from advertising believe that advertising is an emotional effect in a series of stress and excitations, and the purchasing of goods precedes the perception, that is, a person, as in other cases, in his own researches and models the subject, and only then the subject becomes its own need or desire. Make a purchase for such people – it means to identify it with its own face, to tell about myself others. Moral motives appeal to the senses of fairness and decency. Scientists, psychologists refer to this explanation: the theme of justice, which is used in advertisements of charitable foundations, community organizations, political campaigns; motive for environmental protection; motif of decency, which is based on conscience, kindness, moral virtues and the like; social motive associated with a particular mezhdunatsionalnym conflicts, disasters, rising crime, stress, society, and the like. Advertising agencies are usually used in advertising campaigns by several motives. Developed using the above of different structures that participate in the campaign, ads will attract new customers, make them supporters of goods of services that are advertised. It is the purpose of any advertising campaign. However, the ad campaign does not exist in isolation from other business activities. It is closely related to marketing, that is the definition of demand, pricing, on products that advertised their development (the so-called technical policy) and other elements of market economy.

Business Games

Recently in our country there is a severe shortage of qualified personnel. Note, that qualified – lack of staff at all. Therefore, many companies are very serious about recruiting personnel, using the most modern methods (to make sure that employ the most suitable candidate), for example assessment center. In world practice, this tool has been used for nearly 50 years, but in Russia application assessment centers began several years ago. assessment Centre (assessment center) is nothing more than a collection of various exercises on the results of which can accurately estimate suitability of candidates for specific job. Typically, an invitation to a candidate for the assessment center comes after an interview with a representative of the employer.

At the interview you as a candidate can only to declare their business skills: leadership, teamwork skills, ability to defend their point of view and interests of the company – the interview is only words and nothing more. assessment center allows employer to verify in practice the quality of your business. The structure of classical assessment Center includes the following components: – A set of different tests, ranging from personal and ending tests. – Self-presentation party for experts and other candidates. – Individual analysis of various situations (case-study). This is usually written exercises aimed at identifying how to identify and analyze information. – Business Games focused on team work in groups of 3 – 5 people. – Self-assessment at the end assessment center. – An interview with an expert on professional matters. Each company creates its own set of components and the sequence assessment centers depending on their needs, as well as time and financial resources. All stages of the assessment center is supervised by specially invited observers – this can be both psychological and Your future direct superior. Observers closely following interpersonal skills: – Ability to find common language with different group members. – The ability to persuade. – The ability to defend their point of view. – Ability to become and remain the leader of the group. – Ability to listen to someone else’s opinion. – The ability to express their ideas. – The ability to express the general opinion of the group.

Left Save

Is it not better to think about how you can earn more. Invent and create their work, improve their skills, find a better paying job, ask the head of the salary increase, to find additional income. (Similarly see: Wells Fargo Bank). Thousands of options, most importantly want to see them. In most cases, salary increases should just stop being afraid and do at least a small step forward. Why did one person from the subjects still was able to save some money? Most likely, this person could do it mechanically, not investing in this process is no emotion. He did not want to save, but just responsibly complied with my request. Other participants invested in this process their emotions, really wanted to save money and carefully restrict themselves in many things, as if to say, thus the universe that can not afford to buy. And she, in turn, reflected their thought.

So how do you need to refer to money, you ask? Do they need to mindlessly fritter? It's so close to bankruptcy and! My answer to this question. Do not tremble over money, not save every penny, do not deny themselves in a pleasant shopping, do not go every night with the thought that tomorrow you will not have the money. Money – is energy. And the energy needed constant movement. Imagine that you have a certain reserve of love. You are very afraid of him lose, and decides to take his savings. Do you think that if you give away love to the left and right, then very quickly the stock is exhausted, and you are left with nothing.

Tax And Accounting, And Other Extraordinary Divergence

Continued. Concept and classification of costs in accordance with Article of the Tax Code, the costs referred to substantiated and documented costs (losses), exercise (sustained) taxpayer. Expenditures are divided into costs that are associated with the implementation and production, and non-operating expenses. The costs associated with production and sales, include: the costs of voluntary and compulsory insurance, costs for maintenance and operation, maintenance and repair of fixed assets and other assets, and to maintain them in working (actual) state spending on research and development activities, costs associated with shipping and storage of goods, works, manufacture or production, services, sales and purchases of goods (works, services, property rights), the cost of natural resources, other costs associated with the implementation and production.

Costs related to production or sales, can be divided: the cost of paying wages, on the amount of accrued depreciation; on material costs, costs to others. When some of the costs with equal justification can be attributed to several groups of expenditure, the taxpayer may itself determine exactly which group it will carry these costs. Also, the order of allocation of such costs to a particular group of costs is reflected by the payer in its accounting policies. Non-operating expenses. Article two hundred and sixty five ndt Russia in sales expenses include reasonable costs of firms that are not directly related to the sale of goods, services, works and / or production process (Article 265 of the Tax Code Russian). For example, non-operating expenses include: court costs and arbitration fees (paragraphs Ten Section One of Article two hundred sixty-five Tax Code of Russia).

Joint Stock Company

An Open Joint Stock Company has only one significant difference from the closed company, the number of shareholders is unlimited. Therefore, registration of OAO (open joint stock company) is very similar to the registration company. Procedure for registration of when the registration of any legal entity (and the creation of – not the exception) should prepare a package of constitutional instruments. For registration of, you must provide the registering authority application for registration of the decision to create of a receipt for payment of state duty, as well as the charter of. In addition, you will have to pay for charter capital, the minimum size is for the joint stock Society is 1000 times the minimum wage (100,000 rubles). At the end of the state registration you will become a shareholder of established and get your hands on almost the same documents as in the case of registration of company – a certificate of registration and Tax registration, an extract from the register, letters and notices from extrabudgetary funds.

After receiving the documents you need to make a print, opening bank account and notify the tax office. The final stage of registration – issuance of shares and issue registration. This procedure will require you to documents, legal support, patience and a large sum of money. Do not forget that you must provide documents for registration of share issue not later than one month after the registration of. To issue registration you will need the same documents as in the case of the Company. Registration deadline for the registration of JSC is the same 7 days, as registration of any other entity.

Takes a couple of days make a seal and opening the current account. At least one month will issue shares. The cost of registration Registration of going to cost you about as much as the establishment of Joint-Stock Company. Cost of registration is composed of the state fee (2000 rubles), notary services (about 1000 rubles), make a seal (200 rubles), opening a current account (500 rubles). Services legal registration of the company would cost about 9,000 rubles. Slightly more expensive issue – a necessary procedure for joint stock companies. The state fee for registration of a primary issue of shares is 11 000 rubles, legal services during the issue – about 10 000.

Ergonomics Requirements

Ergonomic requirements for commercial product – a requirement to the size, shape, color products and elements of its structure, to their relative positions, which are responsible for ergonomics and human established in order to optimize its operations. With the help of ergonomic requirements are security, safety and convenience in operation and maintenance of new products. At the present stage implementation and operation of new technology creates problems unsolvable by means of only the technical and medical sciences. Please visit Paynet if you seek more information. Necessary recommendations of psychologists, physiologists, occupational health compliance, design and combining them into a common system requirements on the content and nature of labor rights in the system "man – technology – environment" (SCHTS). Based on the theory and methodology of such an association and there was a 20-ies. XX century. Ergonomics (from gr. ergon – work, nomos – Law, the law works ").

Ergonomics – the science that studies the man and his activities in conditions of modern production with a view to optimizing tools, conditions and process of labor. The main goals of ergonomics is: Safety labor; improving the system "man – technology – environment; comfort – satisfaction with the results of their labor rights and ensuring the conditions for the development of human personality in the process of labor. Ergonomics form the following group characteristics: 1) anthropometric, regulate compliance with the machine size and shape of the body working person, mobility, body parts and other parameters, 2) hygienic, characterize meteorological conditions of the microclimate and limiting exposure to harmful environmental factors, and 3) physiological and psychophysical characterize those ergonomic requirements that determine compliance SCHTS power, speed, energy, visual, auditory, tactile features and characteristics of man, and 4) psychological, setting out the cars features and characteristics of perceptual memory, thinking, psychomotor rights. Pronalizirovav these figures, we can give a differential and a comprehensive ergonomic evaluation SCHTS. Ergonomic design includes a ESKD. They are held on all phases – from development Terms of Reference for the establishment of SCHTS to manufacture and test a prototype. At the stage of developing technical specifications ergonomist-psychologist decides whether to ergonomic requirements for future SCHTS based on analysis of data on the use of prototypes. In justifying the execution of each stage of design preparation conducted an ergonomic assessment. It is a complex scientific, technical and organizational and methodological measures for assessing performance in design, pre-and working papers in the samples SCHTS ergonomic requirements specification, the normative-technical and managerial documents.

Corporate Health Insurance

The logic here is simple – why pay the cashier medical facility, if this same amount (or less) can be given right doctor. But forget the fact that in this method of payment of any contract for such services will not be. And accordingly, if there is a medical error or the effect of treatment is not occurs, a claim to a medical center and can be no question. Misconception 3: it is easier to get to the right doctor, personally agree with him on the admission and pay him the same. Long queues at clinics – this is one of the reasons that people began to refuse services to free medicine. It is believed that he had agreed with the doctor personally and promised to pay him, we can arrive at the reception at a convenient time and not to stand in line. When you use legal ways to pay services, the queues can also be avoided. In the majority of paid health clinics patients come in strictly designated time and get to a doctor without delay. Go to Ben Silbermann for more information. The only inconvenience that may arise – for the right doctor can not always be free time, when you need a patient. Of course, signing up in advance, this problem will not arise.

At the same time, if the patient has a medical insurance policy, he only need to contact Manager of the insurance company and call the appropriate time to visit. The advantage of lca here is that the insurance company may send its client is not in the same clinic, and in any of those to whom it contract. Misconception 4: When buying a policy lca treatment will most expensive. When you pay over the counter patient pays only for those services which he rendered. In the case of lca – a lump sum payment may seem large, especially if the client will go to the clinic often. At the same time when emergencies – unexpected illness, injury, surgery – Payment in cash may well exceed the amount of the policy lca. Also, when Corporate Health Insurance lca will include discounts and the cost of health insurance policy will not be too high. The presence of human insurance policy lca has a major impact on the quality of provision medical services. The reason for this – a direct interest clinic staff: such patients bring them additional income in the extra-budgetary activities, clinics are able to update their medical databases and improve service. However, the clinic and are interested in providing quality services to work with the insurance company has been long, but its customers were regular patients of the medical institution.

Conference Board

The experts suggest that marketers pay attention to the fact that representatives of the Internet audience today than young people, and such are also two generations, as Baby Boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) and Silver Surfers (over 62). U.S. residents older generations are the most significant proportion of the population and they are now in the Network – emphasize the report’s authors. According to Paul Verna (Paul Verna), senior analyst at eMarketer, the use of the Internet generation baby boomers and those older than 62 years, will continue to grow in coming years. These people also have significant own income and, therefore, provide an excellent audience for online marketers. By forecasts eMarketer, in the next five years, the number of representatives of the baby boomer generation web (that is, those who goes on the Internet at least once a month) to grow by more than 5 million people, with 58.2 million in 2006 to 63 7 million in 2011.

‘Representatives of the generation of diverse, they are difficult to classify, and marketers that are often neglected, focusing on promotion of goods, services, and media among young people ‘- emphasizes Verne. However, he notes, the generation baby boomers have a significant economic strength and constantly refers to the network for solving a wide range of issues. This e-commerce and financial services, travel and entertainment, and health issues, news and user-generated content. The so-called Silver surfers, people over 62 years, also constitute a significant proportion of Internet users in the U.S Their number, according to the report predicts, will grow from 17.7 million people in 2006 to 25.3 million in 2011. This category Internet users, certainly not as plentiful and does not have an influence on the web, as representatives of the younger generations, but they intend to use the network to a wide range of his interests, hobbies, as well as for professional work, stress at eMarketer. Silver surfers are usually known as the ‘silent generation’ – ‘silent generation’ expert notices.

Online marketers bypass such consumer side, because many of these users have retired before computers and broadband access have become a common thing, and their online habits are not as entrenched as that of youth. Nevertheless, I am sure Vern, the economic power of the generation and their growing presence on the web should be ‘awakening call’ for marketers who, you may want to turn their sights on something else. “What marketers should not forget – so it is that the representatives of these two demographic groups have substantial income and spend a lot of ‘, – the expert emphasizes. According to the Conference Board, representatives of the baby boomer generation have an average income of about 10000 a year, which could freely dispose. That’s more than have the representatives of any other generation in the U.S ‘So the focus on young people and lose sight of the representatives of the generation of baby boomers and consumers over 60 years, as do Some marketers, means to lose an excellent opportunity to attract the attention of big, emotional, and various fast-growing part of the American online audience ‘- sure Verne.

American Society

In today's economy to maintain competitiveness in the international market to domestic companies must comply with generally accepted world standards. After Russia's accession to the WTO, the problems compliance with foreign standards will become more apparent. Representatives from many sectors related to the welding business, worried about the compliance of their products and technologies to international standards. Worldwide recognition in the industry has received the American Society of Welding (AWS). This community includes more than 50,000 participants who have united to promote the development of technology, theory and practice of welding. Member society are engineers, scientists, educators, researchers, welders, inspectors, business partners, company executives and employees. AWS standards are in great demand among Russian companies, as shows query analysis in Yandex.

By the popular standards of the society are AWS A 5.1 / A5.1M: 2004 and AWS A 5.5 / A5.5M: 2006. AWS standards include automatic, semiautomatic and manual welding, brazing, soldering solder, as well as issues relating to safety and health. Currently on the market in Russia are not so many companies, these standards have been officially delivered. One such company is a company Normdoks that offers search services and the provision of AWS standards in Russia and CIS countries. Delivery standards is not without a number of related services.

Among them: Translation Standards Since AWS is inherently American society, the text of AWS standards comes in the original language, ie English. Therefore, Russian companies will inevitably face the challenge of translating standards into Russian. Translation standards such as variety of technical translation, is one of the most difficult. Of translation quality standards depends on production, operation, reliability, safety of workers and consumers. Therefore, not every translation companies are able to correctly and is technically true to cope with this task. Normdoks company, having rich experience in technical translation, provides translation services standards. Updating the standards Standard – a document with their life cycle. During the life cycle can vary the content of the standard, its status, issued amendments to it, it can be substituted for other standards. Normdoks company provides services for the updating of standards. The company's specialists Normdoks track all changes to the standards of interest to you and provide you with information about each document and if necessary, deliver the changed actual documents. In conclusion, adding that, in general, from the correspondence of Russian products to international standards depends not only on the state of the domestic industry but the economy as a whole.