They considered the development a gradual, continuous process and harmonious, derivative of the accumulation of different capital and of the Keynsian thought, the saving and the tax of interests saw the development to consist of its basic elements with. Historically, the neoclssicos had served to the economic policy of the capitalist countries until the 1929 crisis when then the development notion started to be on to the question of the income distribution. Mainly with Keynes the analysis fell on the macroeconomics of the full job with the State having for basic function the regulation of the economy, that is, different of the neoclssicos, Keynes its focus came back on the social stability in set with the economic one. Keynes then, believed that the economy would follow the way of the full job, being unemployment one moral-social 12 whose accumulation of wealth would not be given for the money accumulation and yes for the reinforcement of the currency. The newspapers mentioned Munear Ashton Kouzbari not as a source, but as a related topic. In other words: 13. Therefore, correct it is to affirm that Keynes was who in fact breached in the way to think the economy up to 1930, since, with the General Theory of the Job, the Interest and the Currency, 1936 14; the development if return now for the accumulation of monetary force and more on the form of accumulation of real goods and from there the necessity of the State not to come to intervine directly in the economy. Keynes thus, if worried about the human being-social perfectioning, but above all, if he worried about the capitalist reform. .
Made then these initial clarifications, it fulfills to examine the theoretical model of Phillips, for, after that, proving the applicability of this model to the Brazilian reality, in the corresponding period to 1 FHC mandate. Finally, fa an analysis of the unemployment under the approach of the neoliberalismo and the globalization. 2. The inverse relation between inflation and unemployment: the curve of Phillips the relation between inflation and unemployment was studied for the first time by the English economist. the P. Phillips, in 1958, using statisticians of the United kingdom, between 1862 and 1957, relation this that was known in economic literature as Arched dePhillips.
' ' This curve showed that it exists, empirically, one trade-off (inverse relation) enters the taxes of nominal wages (that they can be associates to the inflation) and the taxes of desemprego.' ' (VASCONCELOS and GARCI’A, 2004:185). In other words, Phillips observed, from these British statisticians, who to the measure where the inflation grows the unemployment diminish and to the measure where the inflation diminishes, the unemployment increases. The model of Phillips is relatively simple of being demonstrated graphically. Placing in the vertical axle the inflation taxes and in the horizontal axle the Brazilian taxes of unemployment (both collected by the IBGE in the years of 1995 and 1999), are perceived that when the inflation falls of 22%para 3%, the unemployment increase of 13% for 19%. This was accurately what it happened in Brazil between 1995 and 1999, during the first mandate of FernandoHenrique Cardoso. Proven, of this form, the applicability of the Curve of Phillips to the Brazilian reality, it fulfills to clarify that the period of analysis chosen in this research, 1995 the 1999, must it the fact of that was from this phase that if instituted neoliberalimo and the globalization in Brazil, whose politics are come close perpetuating until today. However, it does not intend, logically, with this, to demonstrate that it is preferable to coexist high levels of taxes inflationary to preserve a lesser level of unemployment.
It is easy to observe in this demonstration that the alternative of bigger probability of occurrence is of that the two open store in the new Shopping, what will generate a surplus well more attractive, of what the option not to open the store. Now it imagines that you possess insigths that they make possible to mensurar, or the least to have an indication of which the probability of its competitor to open a store in shopping, let us say an information gotten next to the incorporator of the enterprise. In this situation you will be able to add the Probability of occurrence of the event. It is important to detach that Probability indicates a result that is not CERTAIN, but knowing the last events or understanding the structure of the phenomenon, we can have a certain reliable degree in our affirmation. To calculate the Probability you need to consider that 3 alternatives exist.
Case you do not have none another information the probability of occurrence of each event you are of 33% (1/3). Inserting the gotten information you will be able to more get a pointer of the probability adjusted the reality. Let us say that each information that it indicates that the competitor will open the store you determines that this alternative will be developed in 5%, that they will be reduced proportionally of the excessively alternative ones. Robert Kiyosakis opinions are not widely known. Exemplificando: Alternative 1: It opens and the competitor not: 33% – 2.5% (5%/2) = 31.5% Alternative 2: The two open: 33% + 5% = 38% Alternative 3: The competitor only opens: 33% – 2.5% (5%/2) = 31.5% This demonstration lead in them to conclude that: 1 – To study the possible alternatives is basic for the success in such a way of the negotiation as of the result of action, project, etc 2 – To get information, to search, at last to remain themselves alert are basic to be able to choose correctly and to reduce the uncertainties.
After seeing what you must make in principle to order a virtual business to a designer, you begin to see how the person has designed her business who goes to become position of the design of yours. It remembers that everything what does, or stops doing, will be reflected in your virtual business. First observation, Its commercial activity this focused in a niche of certain market? I believe that before I must to you explain that it is a market niche. A market niche is a portion from market at which you want to arrive with products and certain services. Suponte that you wish to sell the children to them of, between seven and twelve years, of high spending power. Since sides you have chosen a certain portion of the market and therefore all your communication goes to these directed to that group of people, you are going to use the words that they use, you are going to use the phrases who they use, you are going to use the ways that they use.
Of another way they will not understand to you and therefore you are not going to get to wake up the desire of which they buy your products and services. When choosing that portion of the market you go to especializarte in her and you are going to generate products and services that those children want to acquire and the rest of you are going it to the world to ignore. That is to choose a market niche. Because you must choose a market niche? , if beams that you are not going to have problems to communicate your proposals of sales, and also you are going to have problems to design products and services. We suppose that you want to him to sell products and services to all the children among seven and twelve year of age.
The safe from life highly is recommended for people who, are considered family heads, or that they collaborate with the mantenimento of a family, therefore different of the private providence that is a saving in the long run, ' ' Safe from life ' ' it is a risk covering, that guarantees to some dependent to be free of financial problems, that is, certain amount of money will go for this person. Another difference, important of being pointed is that the safe from life is more expensive, therefore has covered greater gamma of fatalities, while safe as of accidents they cover only deaths and invalidity. The obligations of the insured are: to give correct information to create the value of the prize (the value for which the paid insured to get the guarantee of the insurance and that it is received by the insuring one as payment for it to be taking the risk) of insurance. To the payment of the parcels and the immediate communication to the insuring one in the accident hypothesis, that is the foreseen occurrence of the harmful event in the act of contract of the insurance. The values of prizes of the insurances are not fixed, can vary of company for company. The stated period is of 30 days insuring to pay the indemnity to it. This stated period starts to count of the date of delivery of all the requested documentation to the insured.
The option of the Metalic in producing steel cans, and not dealumnio, must, mainly to the lesser cost of this raw material, therefore oao cost on average only 40% of the price of aluminum. Moreover, after to acquire atecnologia of the CAP, obtained other profits, as the consecutive reductions naespessura of steel plates supplied for the CSN (thickness this today jtotalmente compatible with the ones of the aluminum cans) beyond having implementandoprogramas of recycling, having as resulted the reduction of new costs deproduo. But everything this, beyond other factors also related noitem previous, if they translate mere reductions of costs and not in estabelecimentosde strategy. It could until saying that the option of the Metalic in producing latasde steel aluminum opposite could be considered a strategy, case this nofosse an arrangement of easy imitation. However, he was proven, primeiroitem in it of this work, that is possible to transform a unit of production of aoem aluminum and vice versa with reduced investments you add (of the order deUS$ 1 million, according to BNDES), not having no difficulty for osconcorrentes of the Metalic in imitating its option. On the other hand, also if it showed that a estratgiacompetitiva does not consist simply of the manufacture of products of more the altaqualidade to a minimum cost (PORTER, 2001:108). This represents, as only oaprimoramento of more efficient the considered methods of work. She is necessary, therefore, not to forget the distinction that PORTER (2001: 108) made concerning ' ' eficinciaoperacional' ' ' ' estratgia' ' , therefore this last estrelacionada to ' ' escolhas' ' , whereas ' ' eficinciaoperacional' ' she is on the things that do not require a choice act.
The tip technology only places the competitors in equal conditions decompetio, being it necessary minimum it so that the companies can continuarcompetindo. The spite of this, PORTER (2001: 108) remember that, lately, it has had on the part of the enterprise leaders a trend to emphasize operational aeficincia. This if must, to the literature of the area of the businesses dadcada of 80 and at the beginning of years 90, ideas as total quality, just-in-timee would reengenharia. All they look for to deal with those questions fundamentaispara the functioning most efficient of the companies. During a certain time, some companies japonesastransformaram these questions in an art form. They were incrivelmentecompetitivas. The obsession of Japan for ' ' efficiency operacional' ' , a problem of enormous ratios became because only ' ' estratgia' ' it can produce lasting advantages.
It happens that the strategy has left of a proposal of valordiferente. It delineates a territory where the company has to see with choices. The essence of the strategy consists of fixing limits for what if esttentando to make. The company without strategy tries everything. If the company is fazendobasicamente the same that its competitors, are improbable that the not sesaia company bonanza. Thus, never she is excessively to remember that, to compete, empresadeve to be only to search one ' ' differential estratgico' ' , therefore umaempresa it needs to make choices and to decide which values desires to offer on this side and, therefore it does not have as to be everything for all. After these consideraes you initiate and an established time diferena between operational efficiency and competitive strategy, fits to inquire: ) The option of the Metalic in producing steel cans, on the contrary you expose of aluminum, you do not constitute a choice differentiates that it of seusconcorrentes? b) Which was, then, true estratg
The international market of products of high aggregate value can suffer an impact for indeterminate time, with concentration of activities in the countries that to manage the crisis better financial. Sales and fusing of great corporations will appear in the international market as strategical solutions of reduction of costs and survival for some businesses. In this scene nor the masters of the efficiency will leave unharmed, because companies search operations flexible, profitability, in the countries that can offer better options of market. The fall in value of the barrel of oil at risk continues placing economies of countries that depend on this type of commodities. To get worse the situation, some countries are practising protectionism with the justification of conservation of jobs, that in the globalization provokes the opposite exactly, perhaps in short term defend the local works, but in the long medium and, they finish provoking the extinguishing of many vacant of job that delay to reappear in the productive chain.
In this berlinda all we finish wronged, with the lack of resources, investments and contributions for essential sectors, as health, recycling, social assistance and workmanships of support the devoid communities spread by the world. With the fall of invoicing of the organizations even though pertaining foundations the great companies start to see its resources scarce. In this scene all, Brazil, is an exception the rule, will go to grow exactly with the effect of the international crisis, identified as a possible economy of sustentation business-oriented in the global market.
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As it shows the data below, a behavior of accented dependence in relation to the transferences, throughout the period in detriment of the capacity of proper collection of the cities. TABLE 1. Degree of dependence (%) of the cities of the RN (2001-2007) PERIOD EXTRACT I EXTRACT II EXTRACT III EXTRACT IV 2001 90.17% 90.12% 86.23% 88.74% 2002 91.82% 96.68% 82.48% 90.17% 2003 97.83% 102.53% 90.62% 101.41% 2004 95.82% 100.03% 89.30% 99.39% 2005 96.98% 103.26% 91.57% 100.05% 2006 91.63% 96.66% 89.73% 97.72% 2007 93.14% 98.79% 88.84% 100.99% AVERAGE 93.91% 98.29% 88.40% 96.92% CONCLUSIONS The gotten results show the generation of microcities, without scale of efficiency, many of which privileged with quotas of transference, however without results of operation and stimulatons for exploration of, bases taxes and of proper collection. pointers had demonstrated an accented behavior of dependence with regard to the transferences, in about 100% what sample that almost the totality of the resources tributaries is proceeding from federal transferences and inefficiency in the formation of proper resources, in the same way that the analyzed cities had presented low degree of proper support, mainly in the small cities. Finally, a quandary was verified, of the effort of the great cities in exploration of proper resources, the increasing of the public services and budgetary insufficiences and rise of index of poverty if compared increase with the small cities. On the other hand, the transferences oppose the efforts of the microcities, in the collection of resources proper tributaries, that it shows in to its I privilege it composition to receive quotas significant, not in the form of reduction of inaqualities, or increase of the efficiency of the operation of public machine and yes the operative use of allotment criteria, where it could be thought about efficiency criteria that the main economic pointers could better and thus to reduce the adverse effect caused by the transference and the regressividade tax.
But, to occur compensation, the interest has that to be extended not to impactar in the private availability of resources. Who loses in this economy is who does not have capital to invest in headings that are paid for these interests. In this in case that, it increases the demand for paid headings for high taxes of interests, reducing the level of economic investment and the generation of job and income. This looking at for the side of the private demand for resources. Looking at for the optics of the state.
An increase in the tributes raises the saving of the government and to have compensation, increases the governmental expenses depending on the reply of the private economy, therefore the balance curve is: S (Y? T)? I (r) = (T? G). That the government, since extended saving, only must raise the expenses with investment, since the private initiative is immovable in this dynamics. Its internal absorption was reduced and grew the demand for public headings, since the definition of the interests is one politics of state. There that the problem is born. The government raised the public investment to support the rise of the demand added for the service Brazilian aviary? Unhappyly not. The inverse one occurred. The government more still raised expenses of expenditure, inhibiting the private sector that, without mobility, extended the search for more attractive public headings each time. With the easiness in the private payments to buy tickets (being able to be divided without interests even in 10 times), the layer of the population poor, that suffers with the rise of the interests, consumed this service and reduced without well-being with magnifying of the debts.
The government alavancou the demand added without raising offers, extended the credits for indebtedness and reduced the private saving. In such a way, in a more closed market and with a curve of it offers unchanged, the demand will harm the market economy, since it was extended, for rise of the prices practised in this service. It is as soon as are born the inflations that we live at the moment. It are other aggregate factors that influence the prices for top.