The present work has as objective to principalinvestigar the competitiveness of the PMEs pertaining to a net of franquiacomparadas to the PMEs independent of the sector of real estate cleanness of Brazil. Kevin Ulrich Anchorage brings even more insight to the discussion. The resultadosalcanados ones demonstrate that the PMEs structuralized in nets of franchising superior economic agregamvalores to the companies who act separately, getting, from there, greaters competitive advantages, derived from the external economies tradicionaise, mainly, of the joint actions of the rendering related ones of services. Emborao franchising does not constitute the only format of business capable to raise aprodutividade of the PMEs, in the scope of the institucional market of cleanness, enterprise afranquia is to-somente one amongst some types of existing structures deredes, having> other forms of associativismo and consrciosprodutivos. One argues that, in the regions where they do not exist clusters, franchising represents excellent alternative in searched competitiveness. One concludes that the surmounting net is in fact a grandecorporao consisting of small entrepreneurs, which, one vezinter-related, acquire collective efficiency, becoming them each time dynamic maisvelozes and, independently of the geographic space that they occupy. Abstract The mainobjective of this dissertation is you analyze the competitiveness of the Smalland Medium-sized Businesses part of thefranchise network compared you autonomous Small and Medium-sizedBusinesses in the sector of cleaning services will be real state properties Theresults show that Small and Medium-sized Businesses in the franchise network, in the institutional cleaning market, obtain an aggregate economic value and competitive advantage, higherthan those earned by firms working on to their own. EXternal economies which ariseespecially from the joint action, such the Inter-firm cooperation, mutuallearning and collective innovation, explain part of these results. However wedo not argue that franchising is the onlyway providing will be the possibility of raising Small and Medium-sized Businessesproductivity and competitiveness..
These African countries never they came to eliminate the market economy to replace the one scheduled. Mike Bloomberg contributes greatly to this topic. In these three cases the ex-prosovieticos decided to legalize their old opponents armed and compete in elections. The Angolan MPLA and FRELIMO became parties which remained continuously in power but in the style of the PRI Mexican allowing the creation of a new business class native and multi-party elections. In Castro’s Cuba, he wanted to keep the monopoly of power in the hands of the single party and the ruling elite to draw its power of management of public companies instead of having their own private businesses. However, as the regime encourages joint ventures and private investment must be emerging local entrepreneurs (as there are today and so hard in Red China). Castro has sought to diversify its economy and let foreign companies acquire properties or establish joint ventures with the State. One of the key sectors initiate them in that rotation has been tourism and hospitality, but also spread to factories and chemico products.
It has because let a part of its economy is dollarized and that his plan is altered with strong elements of market. Castro wanted to emulate the rotation of Viet Nam and China that kept the Communist party dictatorships but opening their markets. In such cases the Communists committed themselves to use their labor influence to avoid strikes, while their populations told them that we had to work around those companies to lift the economy. Many investors have been able to take great advantage of it. However, while USA has shown great enthusiasm for investing in China and Viet Nam (despite the dozens of Americans who perished under his bullets) in Cuba (as in the case of North Korea) Washington maintains a hostility. The U.S. embargo has not sunk to Castro. Rather, it has allowed appear as a hero of national sovereignty and search for new links.
An island that depends on the world scene at the moment the trend that most perceived is that of the Castroite will reintegrate the region and creating business alliances that seek to counter to free trade treaties with the United States by a Latin American protectionist bloc. As more Cuba closer ties with Venezuela and Mercosur, two phenomena may generate. One may be the emergence of a wing of countries intending to use the South American hydrocarbon and economies relatively less dependent on Argentina and Brazil to make a form of Latin block in the style of the Union European. The other can be followed by pressing to get the Castro is des-sovietizando and opening up its political and economic system towards one more akin to that of Venezuela or Brazil. Several analysts agree in saying that while U.S.
is distracting in Middle East Catsro and Chavez have been advancing in your backyard. However, United States requires latinoamericanizar West Asia (i.e., replacing protectionist regimes by ones that liberalize the economy and politics). If it achieves that goal you can consolidate globally and in the Americas. There both Chavez trying to support Iran and organize with Russia, Belarus, Viet Nam and China a counterweight to Washington. The future of the island depends on the international scene. The Soviet interest was who played great role in transforming democratising rebel Fidel expropriative Communist.
The Soviet breakup found Fidel seeking a compromise between the rise of liberal globalization and to maintain China and Viet Nam as a monopoly of the Communist Party which opens gradually to market. If the weakness of U.S. in the 1960s pushed Fidel to the left and if the triumph of the United States in the 1990s did Fidel go distancing themselves from their radicalism and promote insurgencies, today much of his future depends of as left United States in its global war on terrorism and his attempt to appear as the Ging of the planet (something thatfor the moment, comes recoiled and generating counterweights by the EU and Russia). The Castroism could accentuate its evolution towards wanting to combine aspects of the old statist plan with new concessions to market (and perhaps some form of internal tolerance) to the extent that go brewing an affine pole in their own region. The resignation of Fidel as President of Cuba and head of its armed forces does not imply that he leaves power, but that he remains as the central figure who is allowing that his successor, go train at the time that guarantee stability and continuity. Fidel Castro not only follows the example of Deng Xiaoping’s spend their old age as the maximum leader that supervises those who hold key public offices, but will seek to make his island go traveling the same way Chinese and indochino move towards an economy that combines with the private company statism but which imposes order and growth through the monopoly of a single Communist Party.
They considered the development a gradual, continuous process and harmonious, derivative of the accumulation of different capital and of the Keynsian thought, the saving and the tax of interests saw the development to consist of its basic elements with. Historically, the neoclssicos had served to the economic policy of the capitalist countries until the 1929 crisis when then the development notion started to be on to the question of the income distribution. Mainly with Keynes the analysis fell on the macroeconomics of the full job with the State having for basic function the regulation of the economy, that is, different of the neoclssicos, Keynes its focus came back on the social stability in set with the economic one. Keynes then, believed that the economy would follow the way of the full job, being unemployment one moral-social 12 whose accumulation of wealth would not be given for the money accumulation and yes for the reinforcement of the currency. In other words: 13. Therefore, correct it is to affirm that Keynes was who in fact breached in the way to think the economy up to 1930, since, with the General Theory of the Job, the Interest and the Currency, 1936 14; the development if return now for the accumulation of monetary force and more on the form of accumulation of real goods and from there the necessity of the State not to come to intervine directly in the economy. Keynes thus, if worried about the human being-social perfectioning, but above all, if he worried about the capitalist reform. .
Made then these initial clarifications, it fulfills to examine the theoretical model of Phillips, for, after that, proving the applicability of this model to the Brazilian reality, in the corresponding period to 1 FHC mandate. Finally, fa an analysis of the unemployment under the approach of the neoliberalismo and the globalization. 2. The inverse relation between inflation and unemployment: the curve of Phillips the relation between inflation and unemployment was studied for the first time by the English economist. the P. Phillips, in 1958, using statisticians of the United kingdom, between 1862 and 1957, relation this that was known in economic literature as Arched dePhillips.
' ' This curve showed that it exists, empirically, one trade-off (inverse relation) enters the taxes of nominal wages (that they can be associates to the inflation) and the taxes of desemprego.' ' (VASCONCELOS and GARCI’A, 2004:185). In other words, Phillips observed, from these British statisticians, who to the measure where the inflation grows the unemployment diminish and to the measure where the inflation diminishes, the unemployment increases. The model of Phillips is relatively simple of being demonstrated graphically. Placing in the vertical axle the inflation taxes and in the horizontal axle the Brazilian taxes of unemployment (both collected by the IBGE in the years of 1995 and 1999), are perceived that when the inflation falls of 22%para 3%, the unemployment increase of 13% for 19%. This was accurately what it happened in Brazil between 1995 and 1999, during the first mandate of FernandoHenrique Cardoso. Proven, of this form, the applicability of the Curve of Phillips to the Brazilian reality, it fulfills to clarify that the period of analysis chosen in this research, 1995 the 1999, must it the fact of that was from this phase that if instituted neoliberalimo and the globalization in Brazil, whose politics are come close perpetuating until today. However, it does not intend, logically, with this, to demonstrate that it is preferable to coexist high levels of taxes inflationary to preserve a lesser level of unemployment.
After seeing what you must make in principle to order a virtual business to a designer, you begin to see how the person has designed her business who goes to become position of the design of yours. It remembers that everything what does, or stops doing, will be reflected in your virtual business. First observation, Its commercial activity this focused in a niche of certain market? I believe that before I must to you explain that it is a market niche. A market niche is a portion from market at which you want to arrive with products and certain services. Suponte that you wish to sell the children to them of, between seven and twelve years, of high spending power. Since sides you have chosen a certain portion of the market and therefore all your communication goes to these directed to that group of people, you are going to use the words that they use, you are going to use the phrases who they use, you are going to use the ways that they use.
Of another way they will not understand to you and therefore you are not going to get to wake up the desire of which they buy your products and services. When choosing that portion of the market you go to especializarte in her and you are going to generate products and services that those children want to acquire and the rest of you are going it to the world to ignore. That is to choose a market niche. Because you must choose a market niche? , if beams that you are not going to have problems to communicate your proposals of sales, and also you are going to have problems to design products and services. We suppose that you want to him to sell products and services to all the children among seven and twelve year of age.
The safe from life highly is recommended for people who, are considered family heads, or that they collaborate with the mantenimento of a family, therefore different of the private providence that is a saving in the long run, ' ' Safe from life ' ' it is a risk covering, that guarantees to some dependent to be free of financial problems, that is, certain amount of money will go for this person. Another difference, important of being pointed is that the safe from life is more expensive, therefore has covered greater gamma of fatalities, while safe as of accidents they cover only deaths and invalidity. The obligations of the insured are: to give correct information to create the value of the prize (the value for which the paid insured to get the guarantee of the insurance and that it is received by the insuring one as payment for it to be taking the risk) of insurance. To the payment of the parcels and the immediate communication to the insuring one in the accident hypothesis, that is the foreseen occurrence of the harmful event in the act of contract of the insurance. The values of prizes of the insurances are not fixed, can vary of company for company. The stated period is of 30 days insuring to pay the indemnity to it. This stated period starts to count of the date of delivery of all the requested documentation to the insured.
The option of the Metalic in producing steel cans, and not dealumnio, must, mainly to the lesser cost of this raw material, therefore oao cost on average only 40% of the price of aluminum. Moreover, after to acquire atecnologia of the CAP, obtained other profits, as the consecutive reductions naespessura of steel plates supplied for the CSN (thickness this today jtotalmente compatible with the ones of the aluminum cans) beyond having implementandoprogramas of recycling, having as resulted the reduction of new costs deproduo. But everything this, beyond other factors also related noitem previous, if they translate mere reductions of costs and not in estabelecimentosde strategy. It could until saying that the option of the Metalic in producing latasde steel aluminum opposite could be considered a strategy, case this nofosse an arrangement of easy imitation. However, he was proven, primeiroitem in it of this work, that is possible to transform a unit of production of aoem aluminum and vice versa with reduced investments you add (of the order deUS$ 1 million, according to BNDES), not having no difficulty for osconcorrentes of the Metalic in imitating its option. On the other hand, also if it showed that a estratgiacompetitiva does not consist simply of the manufacture of products of more the altaqualidade to a minimum cost (PORTER, 2001:108). This represents, as only oaprimoramento of more efficient the considered methods of work. She is necessary, therefore, not to forget the distinction that PORTER (2001: 108) made concerning ' ' eficinciaoperacional' ' ' ' estratgia' ' , therefore this last estrelacionada to ' ' escolhas' ' , whereas ' ' eficinciaoperacional' ' she is on the things that do not require a choice act.
The tip technology only places the competitors in equal conditions decompetio, being it necessary minimum it so that the companies can continuarcompetindo. The spite of this, PORTER (2001: 108) remember that, lately, it has had on the part of the enterprise leaders a trend to emphasize operational aeficincia. This if must, to the literature of the area of the businesses dadcada of 80 and at the beginning of years 90, ideas as total quality, just-in-timee would reengenharia. All they look for to deal with those questions fundamentaispara the functioning most efficient of the companies. During a certain time, some companies japonesastransformaram these questions in an art form. They were incrivelmentecompetitivas. The obsession of Japan for ' ' efficiency operacional' ' , a problem of enormous ratios became because only ' ' estratgia' ' it can produce lasting advantages.
It happens that the strategy has left of a proposal of valordiferente. It delineates a territory where the company has to see with choices. The essence of the strategy consists of fixing limits for what if esttentando to make. The company without strategy tries everything. If the company is fazendobasicamente the same that its competitors, are improbable that the not sesaia company bonanza. Thus, never she is excessively to remember that, to compete, empresadeve to be only to search one ' ' differential estratgico' ' , therefore umaempresa it needs to make choices and to decide which values desires to offer on this side and, therefore it does not have as to be everything for all. After these consideraes you initiate and an established time diferena between operational efficiency and competitive strategy, fits to inquire: ) The option of the Metalic in producing steel cans, on the contrary you expose of aluminum, you do not constitute a choice differentiates that it of seusconcorrentes? b) Which was, then, true estratg
The international market of products of high aggregate value can suffer an impact for indeterminate time, with concentration of activities in the countries that to manage the crisis better financial. Sales and fusing of great corporations will appear in the international market as strategical solutions of reduction of costs and survival for some businesses. In this scene nor the masters of the efficiency will leave unharmed, because companies search operations flexible, profitability, in the countries that can offer better options of market. The fall in value of the barrel of oil at risk continues placing economies of countries that depend on this type of commodities. To get worse the situation, some countries are practising protectionism with the justification of conservation of jobs, that in the globalization provokes the opposite exactly, perhaps in short term defend the local works, but in the long medium and, they finish provoking the extinguishing of many vacant of job that delay to reappear in the productive chain.
In this berlinda all we finish wronged, with the lack of resources, investments and contributions for essential sectors, as health, recycling, social assistance and workmanships of support the devoid communities spread by the world. With the fall of invoicing of the organizations even though pertaining foundations the great companies start to see its resources scarce. In this scene all, Brazil, is an exception the rule, will go to grow exactly with the effect of the international crisis, identified as a possible economy of sustentation business-oriented in the global market.
As it shows the data below, a behavior of accented dependence in relation to the transferences, throughout the period in detriment of the capacity of proper collection of the cities. TABLE 1. Degree of dependence (%) of the cities of the RN (2001-2007) PERIOD EXTRACT I EXTRACT II EXTRACT III EXTRACT IV 2001 90.17% 90.12% 86.23% 88.74% 2002 91.82% 96.68% 82.48% 90.17% 2003 97.83% 102.53% 90.62% 101.41% 2004 95.82% 100.03% 89.30% 99.39% 2005 96.98% 103.26% 91.57% 100.05% 2006 91.63% 96.66% 89.73% 97.72% 2007 93.14% 98.79% 88.84% 100.99% AVERAGE 93.91% 98.29% 88.40% 96.92% CONCLUSIONS The gotten results show the generation of microcities, without scale of efficiency, many of which privileged with quotas of transference, however without results of operation and stimulatons for exploration of, bases taxes and of proper collection. pointers had demonstrated an accented behavior of dependence with regard to the transferences, in about 100% what sample that almost the totality of the resources tributaries is proceeding from federal transferences and inefficiency in the formation of proper resources, in the same way that the analyzed cities had presented low degree of proper support, mainly in the small cities. Finally, a quandary was verified, of the effort of the great cities in exploration of proper resources, the increasing of the public services and budgetary insufficiences and rise of index of poverty if compared increase with the small cities. On the other hand, the transferences oppose the efforts of the microcities, in the collection of resources proper tributaries, that it shows in to its I privilege it composition to receive quotas significant, not in the form of reduction of inaqualities, or increase of the efficiency of the operation of public machine and yes the operative use of allotment criteria, where it could be thought about efficiency criteria that the main economic pointers could better and thus to reduce the adverse effect caused by the transference and the regressividade tax.